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8.9 Investigation and Experimentation

Scientific progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content the other three strands, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students will:

  • Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis.
  • Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data.
  • Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test.
  • Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y=kx and apply this to interpret graphs constructed from data.
  • Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables.
  • Apply simple mathematical relationships to determine one quantity given the other two (including speed = distance/time, density = mass/volume, force = pressure x area, volume=area x height).
  • Distinguish between linear and non-linear relationships on a graph of data.

8.1 Motion

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position. As a basis for understanding this concept Students Know :

  • position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions.
  • that average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed and that the speed of an object along the path traveled can vary.
  • how to solve problems involving distance, time, and average speed.
  • the velocity of an object must be described by specifying both the direction and the speed of the object.
  • changes in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both.
  • how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs ofspeed versus time for motion in a single direction.

8.2 Forces

Unbalanced forces cause changes in velocity. As a basis for understanding this concept Students Know :

  • a force has both direction and magnitude.
  • when an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the result is the cumulative effect of all the forces.
  • when the forces on an object are balanced, the motion of the object does not change.
  • how to identify separately the two or more forces that are acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction.
  • that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction).
  • the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion.
  • the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system.
8.10 Effort and Participation

Student effort and participation are important factors in academic success. As a basis for demonstrating effort and participation Students Will :

  • make a consistent effort and turn in completed assignments on time.
  • offer ideas and asks questions in class which makes the contents clear for others and demonstrates good group work.
  • be consistently on task and focused. They listen to others and provide input.
  • show respect for others and the teacher and ask questions in a respectful way.